Site II

Site II “Rabbit Warren”: Overwintering Required

Posted by William Colgan on January 14, 2015
Cold War Science / No Comments

Before giving birth to the first deep ice core during the 1957/1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY), “Site II” in Northwest Greenland was already hosting intensive research activities by the Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Institute (SPIRE) of the US Army. In the summer of 1954, a small team traversed to Site II from Camp TUTO to excavate what would subsequently be referred to in SPIRE reports as the “rabbit warren”. It was a mishmash of rooms, shafts and tunnels, painstakingly excavated up to 30 m deep by chainsaws and shovels, in the porous near-surface firn of the ice sheet. The US Army, which was interested in the load bearing properties of firn and its deformation over time, instrumented the excavations with load plates and deformation grids. All very interesting you may think, but why should anyone care? Well, evidently, in the era before digital data loggers, the only way to collect data from these instruments was to station an engineer at the site throughout the winter.

Enter Mr. Gunther Frankenstein of the 1st Arctic Engineer Task Force, who enjoyed the pleasure of reading analogue gauges, presumably by flashlight, throughout the polar night of 1954/1955. To put winter at Site II in perspective, GC-Net has observed the average air temperature at nearby GITS to be -35°C in January1. In SIPRE reports, the “snow house” built for Mr. Frankenstein is described as being “consistent with modern military standards of comfort”, whatever those might have been. Somehow its 60 cm thick walls also “embod[ied] the best elements of both the native and American art”, a similarly intriguing design criterion. A tip of the hat to Mr. Frankenstein on the 60th anniversary of his ice sheet overwintering; I expect he might have some stories to share! Perhaps also a tip of the hat to the advent of digital data loggers, which have allowed subsequent generations of glaciologists to largely restrict ice sheet field work to a more comfortable summer time activity!

(skimmed from my upcoming Cold War science project.)

1Steffen, K. and J. Box. 2001. Surface climatology of the Greenland ice sheet: Greenland Climate Network 1995-1999. Journal of Geophysical Research. 106: 33,951-33,964.

SiteII_rabbit_warren

A schematic overview of the experimental rooms, tunnels and shafts burrowed into the firn at Site II comprising the “rabbit warren”

SiteII-snow-house

A glancing mention of the snow house used by Mr. Gunther Frankenstein when stationed at Site II, Greenland throughout the 1954/1955 polar night.

Site_II_Traverse

Approximate location of Site II at the end of an overland traverse from Camp TUTO, in Northwest Greenland.

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Sixty Years of Snow Runways

Posted by William Colgan on November 14, 2014
Cold War Science, Glaciology History / 1 Comment

About sixty years ago, in September 1955, the US Army Corps of Engineers conducted the first test landings of wheeled military transport planes on a prepared snow runway at Site II, Greenland. The 3000 meter (10,000 foot) snow runway was prepared by repeatedly pulverizing and compressing the ice sheet’s snow surface with low ground pressure tractors. Driving the tractors from Camp TUTO to Site II, high in the ice sheet interior, took several days.

Eight successful landings with a C-47 Skytrain, led to six successful landings with a C-54 Skymaster, and finally seven successful landings with a C-124 Globemaster. Landing the pug-nosed C-124, which has an empty weight of 45,000 kg (100,000 lbs), on prepared snow runways formed the backbone of ice sheet logistics in both Greenland and Antarctica throughout the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). The slightly more nimble ski-equipped LC-130 Hercules, now a symbol of polar research, was not tested in Northwest Greenland for six more years.

So, perhaps a nod to the 60th anniversary of snow runways, without which ice sheet camps and their precious ice cores and other glaciological data would not be possible!

Correction: In an earlier post version I said the first C-124 usage of a snow runway was in September 1954. In fact, the snow runway technique was developed in September 1954, but the first C-124 usage of a snow runway was not until September of 1955. The 59.5th anniversary of transport planes and snow runways?

Polar Ice Coring and IGY 1957-58: An Interview with Dr. Anthony J. “Tony” Gow.

(skimmed from my upcoming Cold War science project.)

 

C124_icecap

A wheeled C-124 Globemaster unloading on a snow runway at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to deliver a smaller ski-equipped plane in 1956 (photo by Jim Waldron; http://icecores.org)

C130_icecap

A ski-equipped C130 Hercules taxing at Dye-2, Greenland, after dropping of our field party for there weeks in the spring of 2013. (personal photo!)

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